The necessity and reality of revelation and Prophecy according to the Qur’an and intellect 1

فارسی English 934 Views |

The traditional and intellectual reasons for necessity of revelation and Prophecy
The Qur’an clearly states that it is a book revealed to the Prophet and the revelation is a kind of divine utterance beyond the understanding or communication of the material world, revelation is unperceived by sense or intellect but apprehended by other faculties which, by God’s will, are present in certain individuals. Through revelation instruction from the unseen are received and their acceptance and implementation is called prophethood.

Having guidance in the world and human
To clarify this matter we may make the following points.
Man’s Innate Nature
By looking at the creation, it will become clear for us that each created entity, whether mineral, plant or animal, is endowed with an inherent force which enables it to develop in a accordance with its own innate design and nature.

Thus we read in chapter XX:50, “our Lord is He who gave every thing its nature, then guided it correctly ,” and again in chapterLXXXVII:2-3 “who creates, then dispose, who measures then guides.” we also known that man is not excluded from this general law, that is, he has a direction and an aim towards which he develops, having been endowed with faculties which allow him to fulfill this aim. All his happiness lies in a achieving this aim. his sorrow, grief and misfortune are the result of his failure to achieve this aim. He is guided to this special purpose by his Creator.

As God says in chapter LXXVI:3, “ Indeed, we have shown him the way whether he be grateful or disbelieving”. Likewise we read in chapter LXXX:19-20, “From a drop of seed, He creates him and proportions him. Then makes the way easy for him.

The Rational and voluntary aspects of human life
The difference between the animal and plant kingdoms and man is that the former react according to their inherent knowledge, is equipped with an intellect and the capacity to use or recognize wisdom. Even if man capable of undertaking a certain, he weighs the good or the bad, the benefit or harm, contained in that action and implements it only if he estimates that the benefit outweighs the harm.

Thus he follows the instruction of his intellect in every action, the intellect dictates the necessity of an action. The intellect causes one to abandon an act if it is likely to bring with it an unacceptable degree of trouble and hardship ,it not only instructs one the feasibility of an action. but it also takes into account the dictates of sentiment and feeling.

Indeed the perception of sentiment with regard to the relative good or bad in matter is so closely connected with the decision of the intellect as to be considered one and the same thing.

Intellectual reasons for having human social life
No one would deny that men are social beings who co-operate with each other to better meet their daily needs. We may wonder, however, whether man desire this co-operate from their natural feelings, are they naturally inclined to undertake an action with others and share an interest in something as a social project?

On one level, man’s needs, feeling and desires cause him to act for his own benefit and without regard for the needs and wishes of others. Man use every mans to fulfill his own needs:he uses every kind of transport to reach his destination, he uses the leaves, stems and fruit of plants and trees, he lives upon the meat of animals and their products, and takes advantage of a multitude of other things to complement his own deficiencies in certain respects. Can man, whose state is such that he use every thing he find to his own ends, be expected to respect another human being? Can he extend his hand to another in co- operation and turn a blind eye to his own desires for the sake of mutual benefit?

The answer in the first instance must be no. It is as result of man’s countless needs, which can never be fulfilled by himself alone, that he recognizes the possibility of fulfilling them through the help and co-operation of others. Similarly, he understands that his own strengths, desires and wishes are also shared by others, and just as he defends his own interests so others defend their.

Thus, out of necessity, he co-operates with the social nexus and gives a certain measure of his own efforts of others in order to fulfill his own needs. In truth he has entered into a market-place of social wealth, always open to traders and offering all the benefits by the collective work of the social. All these factors are placed together in his marketplace of pooled human resources and each person, according to the importance society attaches to his work, has a share in these benefits.

Thus man’s first nature incites him to pursue the fulfillment of his own needs using others in the process and taking advantage of their work for his own ends. It is only in cases of necessity and helplessness that he lends a hand to co-operate with society.

This matter is clear when we observe the nature of children: anything a child wants he demands in an extreme way, he emphasizes his demand by crying. As he grows older, however, and becomes a pert of the social fabric, he gradually puts an end to his excessive demands. More evidence for the truth of this may be seen when a person accumulates power which exceeds that of others and he rejects the spirit of cooperation and its restrictions of society, such an individual use people and the fruits of their labours for himself without giving any thing back in return.

Necessity of [having ] social life according to the Qur’an
God refers to the necessary spirit of natural cooperation in society in chapter XLIII: 32, “We have apportioned among them their livelihood in the life of the world and raised some of them above other in rake that some of them labour from others….” This verse refers to reality of social situation in which each individual has a different capacity and different talents: those who are superior in one domain engage the cooperation or employ of others for their eventual mutual benefit.

Thus all members of society are linked together in the ways and wants of the fabric of one single unit. Those who do not see the obvious necessity of mutual cooperation are condemned by God in chapter XLV:34, “Truly man is surely a wrong – doer, ( a tyrant)” and in, in chapter XXXIII:72, “Indeed he has proved a tyrant a fool”.

These verses refer to man’s natural instinct which, unless checked, drives him to take advantage of his fellow –men and in doing so to overstep the rights of others.

The Manifestation of Social Differences and the Necessity of law
Man in his dealings with his fellow men is obliged to accept a social life on cooperation, in doing so he effectively forgoes some of the freedom enjoyed within his own sphere of work. Merely taking part in a society based on injustice and gaining social differences is not enough to satisfy the basic needs of the average man. In such a society, taking advantage of the efforts of others leads to corruption and a loss of the original purpose or removing differences between men and bettering their lives.

It is clear that a framework of laws, understood and respected by all, must govern the different members of society. If there are no clear laws governing even the most basic of transactions ( like buying and selling ), transactions will cease to function correctly. Laws are necessary to preserve the rights of individuals. The power and wisdom of the Creator, who has guided man towards his well-being and happiness, has also guaranteed the success and happiness of society.

Guidance in the from of social law is mentioned by God in LXXX:19-20, “From a drop of seed He him and proportions him. then makes the way easy for him.” This making of life easy for him is an indication of the social guidance which he has given to man in the from of laws and instructions.

Inadequacy of the intellect for quiding man Towards law
The guidance we are considering here is that which emanates from the wisdom of the Creator, this wisdom has created man and allotted him his goal of well- being just as it assigned a path and goal to all creation. This goal of happiness and well- being is the path of self –fulfillment based on correct behaviour in social setting. It is clear that, of necessity, there can be no inconsistencies or shortcomings in the work of the Creator.

If, at times, one cannot discern His aim or it seems hidden from normal perception, it is not through lack of reason or cause on the part of God, but rather that the cause is linked to other cause which obscure the one in question. If there were no hindrances to a clear perception of the causal chain of events, two given actions would never appear inconsistent or contradictory to the harmony of creation. Nor would the work of the Creator appear (as it sometimes does to those whose perception is hindered by the intricacy of the causal chain of events), inconsistent and imperfect.

Guidance towards the law, whose function is to remove differences and conflict between individuals in society is not a matter for the intellect since it is this very intellect which cause man to dispute with others. It is the same intellect which incites man to profit at the expense of others and to preserve, first and foremost ,his own interest, accepting justice only when there is no alterative.

The two opposing forces, one causing difficulties and one doing away with them, are qualities of man’s character, they do not obviously exist in the Creator: the countless daily transgressions and violations of the law, in effect, all result from those who use their intellect incorrectly, they themselves are the very source of their own difficulties.

If the intellect was truly a means of removing wrong action from society and was itself a trustworthy guide to man’s well-being, it would recognize the validity of the law and prevent man from violating it. The intellect’s refusal to willingly accept what is obviously given for the well-being of man is confirmed when we realize that its acceptance of a society based on just laws is only out of necessity. Without this compulsion, it would never accept to know the law.

Those who transgress the law do so for many reason: some oppose it without fear, because their power exceeds that of the law, others, because they live outside the reach of the law, through deceit or negligence on the part of the authorities, others are able to invent reasons which make their wrong actions appear lawful and acceptable, some make use of the helplessness of the person they have wronged. All, however, find no legal obstacle in their wrong aims, even if an obstacle appears, their intellect, rather than guiding them to an acceptance of the law, renders the obstacle right and ineffective.

From these examples we are left in no doubt that the intellect, far from controlling, restricting or guiding man, merely use its influence to its own purpose. We must include, therefore, that it is incapable of guiding man towards a social law which guarantees the rights, freedom and well-being of all the members of society.

God says in chapter XCVI:6-7 “Indeed man truly rebels when he thinks himself independent.” The independence referred to here includes the independence of those who magazine that they can claim their rights through other than path of legality.

Sources

The quran in islam- pages: 71to76

Keywords


0 Comments Send Print Ask about this article Add to favorites