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The 1st Imam, Ali -p.b.u.h
Amir al- mu’minin Ali – upon whom be peace – was the son of Abu Talib, the shaykh of the Banu Hashim Abu Talib was the uncle and guardian of the Holy prophet and person who had brought of prophet to his house and raised him like his own son. After the prophet was chosen for his prophetic mission, Abu Talib continued to support him and repelled from him the evil that came from the infidels among the Arabs and especially the Quraysh.
According to well – known traditional accounts Ali was born ten years before the commencement of theprophetic mission of the prophet. when six years old, as a result of famine in and aroundMecca, he was requested by the prophet to leave his father’s house and come to the house of his cousin, the prophet, there was placed directly under the guardianship and custody of the Holy prophet (Al fusul al muhimmah, P 14 Manaqib of Khwarazmi, P17).
Ali (p.b.u.h) as the first Muslim
A few years later, when the prophet was endowed with the Divine gift of prophecy and for the first time received the Divine revelation in the cave of Hira’ , as he met Ali on the way. he told him what had happened and Ali accepted the new faith (Dhakha’ ir al , uqha, P, 48, Manaqib of khwarazmi, PP, 16-22, Yanabi al mawaddah, PP68-72). Again in a gathering when the Holy prophet had brought his relatives together and invited them to accept his religion, he said the first person to accept his call would be his vicegerent and inheritor and deputy. the only person to rise from his place and accept faith was Ali and the prophet accepted his declaration of faith. (Irshadof Musld O4, Yanabi al, mawaddah, P, 122). Therefore Ali wasthe first man in Islam to accept the faith and is the first among the followers of the prophet to have never worshipped other than the one God.
permanet companion of the prophet (p.b.u.h)
Ali was always in the company of the prophet until the prophet migrated from Mecca to Medina. On the night of migeation to Medina ( hijrah) when the infidels had surrounded had the house of the prophet and were determined to inavade the house at the end of the night and cut him to pieces while he was in bed, Ali slept in place of the prophet while the prophet left the house and set for Medina (Al fusul al- Muhimmah, PP28-30, Tadhkirat al- khawa P, 34 Yanabi’ al- mawaddah, P, 105, Monaqib of Khwarazmi, PP73-74). After the departure of the prophet, according to his wish Ali gave back to the people the trusts and charges that they had left with the prophet. Then he went to Medina with his mother, the daughter of the prophet, and two other Women (Al. fusul al. Muhimmah, PP43). In Medina also Ali was constantly in the company of the prophet in private and in public. The prophet gave Fatimah, his beloved daughter from khadijah, to Ali as his wife and when the prophet was creating bonds of brotherhood among his companions he selected Ali as his brother (Al- fusul al- Muhimmah, PP20, Tadhiral al- khawass, PP 20-24 Yanabi al mawaddah, PP, 63-65).
Ali was present in all the wars in which the prophet participated, except the battle of Tabuk he when he was ordered to stay in Medina in place of the prophet (Al- fusul al- Muhimmah, PP 21Tadhiral al- khawass, P 18 Manqibi khwarazmiP, 74). He did not reteeat in any battle nor did he trun his face away from any enemy. He never disobeyed the prophet, so that the prophet said, Ali is never separated from the Truth nor the Truth from Ali (Manqi Al Abi Talib by Muhammad ibn Ali ibn shahrashub, Qum, , n, d, VOI, II, PP, 62 and 218, Ghayat al maram P, 539 Yanabi ql. Mawaddah, P, 104).
The retirement time
On the day of the death of the Prophet, Ali was thirty – three years old. Although he was foremost in religious virtues and the most outstanding among the companions of the prophet, he was pushed aside from the caliphate on the claim that was too young and that he had many enemies among the people because of the blood of the polytheists he had spilled in the was fought alongside the prophet therefore Ali was almost completely cut off from public affairs. he retreated to his house where he began to train competent individuals in the Divine sciences and in this way he passed the twenty- five years of the caliphate of the first three caliphs who succeeded the prophet. when the third caliph was killed. people gave their allegiance to him and he was chosen as caliph.
The caliphate martyrdom and Jahad
During his caliphate of nearly four years and nine months, Ali followed the way of the prophet and gave his caliphate the from of a spiritual movement and renewal and began many different types of reforms. Naturally, these reforms were against the interests of certain parties that sought their own benefit, As a result, a group of the companions (foremost among whom were Talhah and Zubayr, who also gained the support of A’ishah, and especially Mu’awiayh) made a pretext of the death of the third caliph to raise their heads in opposition and began to revolt and rebel against Ali.
In order to quell the civil strife and sedition, Ali fought a war near Basra, Known as the ” Battle of the Camel, ” against Talhah and Zubayr in which A’ ishah “ the Mother of the Faithful , ” was also involved he fought another war against Mu’awiayh on the border of Iraq and Syria which lasted for a year and half and is famous as the ” Battle of Siffin, ” he also fought against the khawarij at Nahrawan, in abattle known days of Ali ‘s capliphte were spent in overcoming internal opposition. Finally, in the morning of the 19 th of Ramadan in year 40 A.H, while praying in the mosque of Kufa. He was wounded by one by one of the Khawarij and died as a martyr during the night of the21st (Manaqib AlAbI Talib, VOI, III, P, 312 al, fusul al, muhimmah, PP, 113-123, Tadhkirat at Khavass, PP, 172, 183).
The perfect unique personality of Ali (p.b.u.h)
According to the testimony of friend and fore alike, Ali had no shortcoming from the point of view of human perfection. And in the IsIamic virtues he was a perfect example of the upbringing and training given by the prophet. The discussions that have taken place concerning his personality and the books written on this subject by shi’ites, sunnis and members of others religions, as well as the simply curious outside any distinct religions bodies, are hardly equaled in the case of any other personality in history. In science and knowledge Ali was the most learned of the companions of the prophet, and Muslims in general. In his learned discourses he was the first in Islam to open the door for logical demonstration and proof and to discuss the “divine sciences” or metaphysics (ma’arif- I IL ahiyah). He spoke concerning the esoteric aspect of the Quran and devised Arabic grammar in order to preserver the Quran’s from of expression. He was the most eloquent Arab in speech (as has been mentioned in the first part of this book).
The courage of Ali was proverbial. In all the wars in which he participated during the lifetime of the prophet, and also after ward, he never displayed fear or anxiety. Although in many battles such as those of Uhud, Hunayn, Khaybar and Khandaq the aides to the prophet and the Muslim army trembled in fear or dispersed and fled, he never turned his back to the enemy. Never did a warrior or soldier engage Ali in battle and come out of it alive, Yet, with full chivalry he would never slay a weak enemy nor pursue those who fled. He would not engage in surprise attacks or in turning streams of water upon the enemy. It has been definitively established historically that in the Battle of Khaybar in the attack against the fort he reached the ring of the door and with sudden motion tore off the door and cast it away (Tadhkirat al. khawass, P, 27). Also on the day when Mecca was conquered the prophet ordered the idols to be broken. The idol “Hubal “was the largest idol in Mecca, a giant stone statue placed on the top of the Ka’bah. Following the command of the prophet, Ali placed his feet on the prophet’s shoulders, climbed to the top of the Ka’bah, pulled“Hubal “ from its place and cast it down.
Ali was also without equal in religious asceticism and the worship of God, in answer to came who had complained of Ali’s anger to ward them, the prophet said, “Do not reproach Ali for he is in a state of Divine ecstasy and bewilderment (Manaqib Al Abi Talib, VOI, III, P, 221, Manaqib of khwarazmi P, 92). Abu Darda’, one the companions, one day saw the body of Ali in one of the palm plantations of Medina lying on the ground as stiff as wood. He went to Ali’s house to inform his noble wife, the daughter of the prophet, and to express his condolences. The daughter of the prophet said, “My cousin (Ali) has not died. Rather, infear of God he has fainted, this condition overcomes him often.
There are many stories told of Ali’s kindness to the lowly, compassion for the needy and the poor, and generosity and munificence toward those in misery and poverty. Ali spent all that he earned to help the poor and needy, and himself lived in the strictest and simplest manner. Ali loved agriculture and spent much of his time digging wells, planting trees and cultivating fields, but all the fields he cultivated or wells that he built he gave in endowment (waqf) to the poor, his endowments, known as the “alms of Ali” had the noteworthy income of twenty-four thousand gold dinars toward the end of his life (Nahj, al, baibaghah, P, part, III, book 24).
The 2nd Imam, Hassan (p.b.u.h)
Imam Hasan Mujtaba- upon whom be peace – was the second Imam. He and his brother Imam Hossein were the two sons of Amir al- mu’minin Ali and Hadrat Fatimah, the daughter of the prophet. many times the prophet had said, “Hasan and Hossein are my children”. Because of these same words Ali would say to his other children, “you are my children and Hasan and Hossein are the children of the prophet (Manaqib of Ibn shahrashub, VOI, IV, PP, 21 and 25, Dhakh’ir al- uqba, PP, 67 and 121).
Imam Hasan was born in the year 3A.H. In Medina (Manaqib of Ibnshahrashub, VOI, IV, P, 28, Dala ilal, imamah P, 60, al fusul al. muhimmah, P, 133, Tadhkiratal – khawass, 193, Tarikh-I Ya’ qubi, VOI, III, P, 204, Usul al- kafi, VOI, I, P, 461) and shared in the life of the prophet for somewhat over seven years, growing up during that time under his loving care. After the death of the prophet which was no more than three, or according to some, six months earlier than the death of Hadrat Fatimah, Hasan was placed directly under the care of his noble father, After the death of his father, through Divine command and according to the will of his father Imam Hasan became Imam, he also occupied the outward function of caliph for about six months, during which time he administered affairs of the Muslims. During that time Mu’awiayh, who was a bitter enemy of Ali and his family and had fought for years with the ambition of capturing the caliphate first on the pretext of avenging the death of the third caliph and finally with an open claim to the caliphate marched his army into Iraq, the seat of Imam Hasan ‘s caliphate. War ensued during which Mu’awiayh gradually subverted the generals and commanders of Imam Hasan ‘s army with large sums ofmoney and deceiving promises until army rebelled against Imam Hasan (Irshad, P, 172, Manaqib of Ibn shahrashub, VOI, IV, P, 33, al, fusul al, muhimmah, P, 144). Finally, the Imam was forced to make peace and to yield the caliphate to Mu’awiayh provided it would again return to Imam Hasan after Mu’awiayh ‘s death and the Imam’s household and partisans would be protected in every way (Irshad, P, 172 Manaqib of Ibn shahrashub, VOI, IV, P, 33 al – mamah wa’l siyasah of Abdallah ibn Muslim ibn Qutaybah, cairo, 1327-31, VOI, I, P, 163, al- fusul ul’ muhimmah, P, 145, Tadhkriat al- khawass P, 197).
In this way Mu’awiayh captured the IsIamic caliphate and entered Iraq, in a public speech he officially made null and void all the peace conditions (Irshad, P, 173 Manaqib of Ibn shahrashub, VOI, IV, P, 35, al- mamah wa’l siyasah VOI, I, P, , 164) and in every way possible placed the severest pressure upon the members of the House hold of the prophet and the shi’ah, During all the ten years of his imamate, Imam Hasan lived in condition of extreme hardship and under persecution, with no security even in his own house. In the year 50 A. H, he was poisoned and martyred by one his own house hold who, as has been accounted has historians, had been motivated by Mu’awiayh (Irshad, P, 172 Manaqib of Ibn shahrashub, VOI, IV, P, 42, al- fusul al, muhimmah, P, 146, Tashkirat al – khavass, P, 211).
In human perfection Imam Hasan was reminiscent of his father and a perfect example of his noble grandfather. In fact, as long as the prophet was a live, he and his brother were always in the company of the prophet who even sometimes would carry them on his shoulders. Both sunni and shi’ite sources have transmitted this saying of the Holy prophet of mine are Imams whether they stand up or sit down (allusion to whether they occupy the external function of caliphate or not) (Irshad, P, 181, ithbat al- hudat. VOI, V, PP, 129, and 134). Also there are many traditions of the Holy prophet and Ali concerning the fact that Imam Hasan would gain the function of imamate after his noble father.
shiah- pages: 278 to 287
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