The summarized logic

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The book  “The summarized   logic”  ( Manteq  al- Molakhas) is  a  logic work  composed  by  the celebrated philosopher, commentator  and logician  in the  12th    century  Fakhr  Razi  It is written in Arabic,  based on the method applied by “Avicenna”    in “ Remarks” (Isharat).
The summarized   logic is compiled in 3 sections as “Remarks”
 (written by Avicenna): logic, natural sciences theology (divinity) .  
The author bitterly criticizes Avicemas work (Remarks).  Fakhr RAzi presents brief and clear logic information on the subjects having
been mentioned by the early logicians.
He usually refers reader to the logicians: Farabi, Avicenna, Abul  Barakat Baqdadi , and Ibn sahlan savi. The philosopher
“ katebi Qazvini” composed on explanation ( commentary) on this work.


The author

Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Umar Ibn Hossein Tabaristani Razi, also known as "Imam Fakhr", Ibn al –Khatib" ,"Fakhr Razi" and also "Imam al- Mushakkekin" (because he doubted about most of the philosophical subjects), a famous Iranian Sunni theologian and philosopher. He was born in 1149 in Ray –Iran and died in 1209.

He studied jurisprudence and Kalam and other Islamic sciences under his father and then studied under Majduddin Jili.
He wrote on medicine, astrology, physics, literature, history and law.
Fakhr Razi was from "Shafi'i" of Islamic law.

Razi's most major work is "The keys to the unknown" (his exegesis on the Quran) and his most important philosophical work is "Eastern discussions".

Other works:
- Eastern studies in metaphysics and physics
 The harvest thought of the ancients and moderns-
 Book on the soul and the spirit and their faculties-
 Commentary on the "Isharat" of Ibn Sina-
- A commentary on "Major rules in medicines" of Ibn Sina, etc


The book structure

The book includes the following sections:
1- On manner of contradiction existing between the concepts, on essence, sort and genus, differential, general accident (Araz) , etc.
2- On definitions (Had) , non – acquired   concepts, impossible definition, the definition  which  needs no reasoning , etc.
3-simple syllogism
4- The conditions
5- The exceptions
6- Definition of   reasoning, the basics of reasoning, fallacies, etc.




The summarized logic


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