Remarks and admonitions

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The book “Remarks and Admonitions” (al-Isharat va al- Tanbihat) is a prominent. Philo- theosophical work, written by the outstanding philosopher “Avicenna” It is one of the principal sources of peripatetic philosophy in the 10th century. The book is written in Arabic, concerning the author's observations, advice views and rules about different subjects, and also presenting the views of the early scholars and the scholars who were contemporary with him.
Avicenna noticed   in his book, the principles of philosophy, in order that distinction of truth can be possible.

The author

Avicenna, one of the greatest Muslim scientists and philosophers, known in the East as Abu Ali Sina and also Ibn Sina (980 – 1037).
He was born near Bukhara, probably with Persian as his native language.
At the age of eighteen he had mastered all the then known sciences. After the death of his father, an official of the Samanid adminstration, and the overthrow of the Samanids by the Ilekhans in 1005, he first wandered through Persia and then, from 1021 until shortly before his death, he lived at Isfahan as court physician of the Buyid rulers Shams al-Dawla and Sama al-Dawla, who by then had come under Kakuid suzerainty.

He is known primarily as a philosopher and physician, Avicenna contributed also to all the sciences that were accessible in his day: natural history, physics, chemistry, astronomy, mathematics and music. He studied mathematics under “Abu Abdullah Natli”, then continued metaphysics, physics and medicine in the presence of “Abu Soheyl Masihi”.
 He wrote on economics, politics, moral and religious questions, Quranic exegesis and poetry.
In 1654, 131 authentic and 110 doubtful works were listed in his bibliography.
The following are his most famous works:

1-    Book of Healing ‘of the soul’ (a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopeida)
2-    The Canon of Medicine (one of the most famous books in the history of medicine)
3-    The Tale of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan (a philosophical allegory)

Avicenna’s influence on medieval European philosophers such as Michael Scot,  Albertus Magnus,  Rager Bacon,  Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas is undeniable.

He died as the result of colic, in Hamedan – Iran where a monument was erected to celebrate the millennium of his birth.

The book structure

“Remarks and Admonitions” includes three main parts (logic, physics and metaphysics) composed in nine chapters (manners) as following:
1- On recognition of the reality of substances
2- On the first and the second substances  
3- The celestial and terrestrial soul
4- Existence and the reasons
5- Creation and innovation
6- on the goals of the universe and the principles
7- Abstraction
8-On happiness and bliss
9. On the ranks of theosophists

The main philosophical subjects in the book are mentioned as “The remarks” (al- Tshart) and explanations related to each subject. As “the admonitions” (al- Tanbihat), the explanations are presented to make readers aware.
Many annotations have written to “Remarks and Admonitions” , some scholars rewrote it as a poem, some other summarized   it.
The following are the most important annotations:  
1-    Labab al-Isharat” (the choice part), writte by “ Fakhr Razi”.
This annotation is written to the chapter “metaphysics”. In which
Fakhr Razi criticized Avicenna.
2-    “The explanation of Remarks and admonitions” ( shqrh al- Ishart) written by” Khajeh Nasir  Tousi.”  In addition to annotation to Avicenna’s work, khajeh Nasir answered the criticism presented in the annotation of “ Fakhr Razi”.
3-“ Mohakemat” ( the trials) is another  important annotation composed to the work of “Avicenna” “ the trials” is written by the great scholar “ “Qotb al-Din Rezi”, in which  the  author  judges against the annotations of “Fakhr Razi”  and that  of “ khajeh Nasir Tausi”.

The book has been also translated into Persian.

 

 

Sources

Remarks and Admonitions

persian encyclopedia

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