The Nejät Al-Ebäd treatise

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The book of “Nejät Al-Ebäd” is one of the Iran‘s Islamic republic founder’s works Ayatollah Imam Khomeini. This book is the first Persian practical treatise by Imam Khomeini which has been collected during his “religious authority” (marja’iyat). The above mentioned book is a practical treatise which has been compiled according to the Imam’s Fatwä (religious decree) about divine issues and injunctions. This treatise in most cases is the translation of “Wasilat Al-Nejat” book and in some issues extracted from “Orvatol Vosqa” book which considering to ####the Imam’s glosses on these two books, has been compiled with using his oral viewpoints. Although after, Ayatollah Borujerdi’s death and with the availability of “Explication of religious problems” (Tozih Al-Masael) treatise by Imam Khomeini, this work has been forgotten, but in most cases referring to it, is useful from the viewpoint of scientific. It should be mentioned this treatise has been printed in direction of gathering and protecting the scientific works of Imam Khomeini and the existent “Fatwa” (religious decree) in it is not the his last view point. Therefore the compilation and publication institute for the works of Imam Khomeini has taken action to revive and publish this treatise which many Imam’s noble students also did not know about this book and remained a few copies of it.

The author’s brief biography:
Ayatollah Hajj Seyyed Rohollah Mustafa, famous to Imam Khomeini, the “Jurisconsult”(faghih) , Marja’(Marja’-e taqlid or source of emulation) , writer, warrior, revolution leader and the founder of Islamic Republic of Iran was born in 1902.9.24A.D.(1320.6. 20, equal with 1281S.H.), the day of Fatimah Zahra’s birthday in Khomein (Iran). He lost his father (by the name of) Seyyed Mustafa in the months of four. In childhood, went to “schoolhouse “ (Maktab khäne means the old-fashion primary school) in Khomein and then in the age of seminarian, studied the literature of elementary Persian, arithmetic, astronomy and then preliminary lessons. In the age of 15, his mother died due to outbreak of cholera. In the age of 19, due to lack of school in Khomein, he went to Aräk to study, and at the presence of “Abdul- Karim Hä’eri Yazdi” studied the logic lesson, Motavval and Lom’e books and Arab literature lesson. In the year of 1922A.D. (1340A.H. equal with 1301S.H.) Ayatollah Hä’eri, went to Qom because of Qom’s scholars’ insistence and founded the Qom’s seminary. After 4 months, many seminarians such as Seyyed Rohoolah, also went to Qom. After 4years studying the “general lessons”(doroose sat’h), in the years of 1926A.D. (1344A.H.), about 11 years, studied the “jurisprudence” (feghh) and “methodology”(osul) , at the presence of Häj Sheikh and synchronized, learned the philosophy lessons and all Mollä Hädi Sabzeväri’s “Manzomeh” (the philosophical poem) for about 4 years. Meanwhile, he started instructing the “poem” (manzomeh) and reached to the rank of “Ejtehad” in 1934A.D. (1313S.H). The Gnostic spirit in him was in 1928A.D. (1307) in the age of 25 or 27 and his “spiritual journey” (seyr and solook) stages, was at the presence of Ayatollah Mohammad Ali Shäh Äbädi. Another his master was Ayatollah Rafi’i Qazvini. About 20 years he instructed and wrote and nevertheless with effort and assiduity, followed the political problems of country and met the persons such as the Late “Modaras” (Modares). The start of his political activities should be counted from 1942/9/A.D. (1320/6/S.H.), the time that the Second World War’s flames, spread to Iran. His revolutionary political activities, appeared after the Second World War and Kennedy’s gaining power, in 1935A.D. (1314 S.H.), and then, the “uprising” (gheyäm) of 1963 A.D. (1342 S.H.), hitting and fracas in Qjom’s Feyziyeh school, his speech (lecture) there against shah (Mohammad Rezä Pahlavi) and Israel and finally his arresting. After a few months he was released by the insistence of people and scholars, then was exiled to Turkey in the August of 1964A.D. (1343S.H.). He was sent to Iraq (from Turkey) in the July of 1965A.D (1344S.H.). Although many years apparently lived in Iraq in silence and peace but never stopped the struggling against royal regime, Israel and Islam enemies till in the year of 1978 A.D.(1357S.H.) following the people’s struggles of Iran against Mohammad Reza Shäh Pahlavi and his government and finally Shäh and his government felling, this great man of history, returned to Iran in 1978A.D. (1357 S.H). As a great leader of revolution and the founder of Islamic Republic of Iran he led the revolution for about eleven year. He died at the age of 87 in 1989/6/3 A.D. (1368/3/13 S.H.).

The book structure:
-the injunctions of imitation
-the injunctions of “purity” (tahärat),
-the injunctions of waters
-the injunctions of evacuate (bowel movement),
-the injunctions of “wozu” (partial [ritual] ablution),
-compulsory “ghosls” (full [ritual] ablution),
-the injunctions of “Jenäbat” (sextual pollution or major (ritual) impurity),
-the injunctions of “ghosl” (full [ritual] ablution),
-the injunctions of menstruation
-the injunctions of ”moribund” (near death),
-the injunctions of the dead shroud
-the injunctions of “hanoot” (embalmment or placing camphor in seven places of the body) and “jaridatin” (two piece of woods on each side of the body will be placed with the dead),
-the injunctions of namäz or prayer for the dead person
-the injunctions of burial of dead person
-the desirable or preferable (mostahab) “ghosl” (full ritual ablution),
-“Tayammom” (ablution with earth or sand instead of water),
-impurities
-purities
-the injunctions of utensils or dishes
-the injunctions of prayer” (namäz),
-the acts of “namäz” (prayer),
-the injunctions of congregational prayer
-the injunctions of fasting
-the way of proving the first of month
-the “desirable ” (mostahab) fastings
-“taking seclusion” (Itikaf) in mosque
-the injunctions of “alms” (zakät),
-the injunctions of ”One Fifth” (khums),
-the book of Hajj
-the unlawful transactions
-the injunctions of buying and selling
-on some injunctions of “shofa’e” (means the right of precedence of one partner to buy the share of the other),
-the injunctions of “peace” (sulh),
-hire
-“reward” (ja’alah),
-“lending” (ariyah),
-“trust” (wadi’e),
-“partnership of capital and labor” (muzärebe),
-“partnership” (sherkat),
-“agricultural partnership for farming” (muzäre’e),
-“agricultural partnership for orchards” (musäqät),
-the book of debt
-the book of mortgage
-the book of “prohibition” (hajr),
-the book of “surety” (zeman),
-the book of “hawälah”(kind of liability) and “bail” (kefalat),
-the book of “giving or gift”(hebah),
-the book of “endowment” (waqf),
-the book of “Taking an Oath “ and swear
-atonements
-the book of eating and drinking
-misappropriation” (ghasb),
-the book resurrecting the dead people
-found thing or ownerless property” (laqteh),
-the book of marriage, divorce
-the book of “khule and Mabarat” (type of divorce).

Sources

The Nejät Al-Ebäd treatise by Ayatollah Grand Imam Khomeini

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